The Role of Food in Human Health and Well-Being
We eat food in order to sustain our lives. Food is any material eaten to give nutrition to organisms. Food is generally of animal, plant or fungi origin, and has necessary nutrients, including vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The five major food groups are protein-containing foods, carbohydrates, vegetable foods, fruits, and oils. Food provides energy and other nutrients for living and can therefore be classified into physiological and nutritional domains.
Nutrition refers to the processes involved to bring about a normal process by which the nutrition of the food is brought into the body. Nutrient absorption and transport involve the assimilation and utilisation of food as well as disposal through the action of hormones and enzymes. The process of utilisation involves the transformation of food into energy and other substances. Nutritional needs of an individual are determined by his genes and by his physiology and metabolic processes. Generally, nutrients required for life are provided by the eatables that an individual eats, whether they be vegetables fruit, seeds, and nuts, or any other food groups.
The nutritional value of a food is determined by the proportions of its nutrient content, quantity of nutrients required, and its physiological and economic structure. Generally speaking, carbohydrate food and fat food have greater amounts of vitamins and mineral ions than non-carbohydrate food. In addition, certain food substances, including protein, fat, sugar, fibre, potassium, salt, yeast and alcohol possess immunological, antigens, and protective properties. Thus, food plays a major role in human health. In order to maintain the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of a person, it is important to meet the basic requirements of carbohydrates, fat, minerals, and vitamins as provided by diet.